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Description of Work Performed

Cyber Ontology (CybOnt) Data Fusion

Intelligence and Information Warfare Directorate (I2WD), US Army Combat Capabilities Development Command, (CCDC)

CybOnt performs ontology-based fusion for cyber threat behavior estimation to contribute to an operator's cyber Situational Awareness (SA) and Situational Understanding (SU).  It is unique in that, (1) it is architected following the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) fusion levels, (2) it uses formal ontology for the T-Box (types) and A-Box (actuals), and (3) it computes mathematically-principled -- and thus robust -- likelihood ratios of attack behavior hypotheses.  Inference links are visualized in a graph database tool that allows customized viewing tailored to operator requirements.  The likelihood ratios can be thresholded to give operators control over display clutter.  It runs in a tactical cloud environment and uses big data technologies.  As we continue to develop probabilistic fusion results in the forthcoming phases, we also plan to incorporate the advances in Deep Learning (DL) in a hybrid architecture.  Architectures we are looking into are: (a) bootstrapping where the Probabilistic Reasoner (PR) is used to develop training sets for DL and the DL living learning is used to adjust probabilistic reasoner’s knowledge base, (b) using the PR for rapid data triage by processing some subset of the observations and features to reduce their dimensionality for the DL, (c) augmenting, where the PR and DL both receive the sensor inputs and PR’s hypotheses and Λ become additional inputs to the DL, and (d) as a validator and explainer in which the PR is used to validate the DL has not be spoofed by adversarial AI or come into an environment it does not know.  The PR explains DL results it agrees with using pedigree or provenance embedded in fusion file and displayable in PR’s graph displays.

Systems Engineering and Architecture

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Atlantic (SPAWARSYSCEN-LANT)

This contract supports enterprise requirements analysis and assessments, architecture, human systems integration, modeling and simulation services and future capability engineering in support of various DoN, DoD and Federal civilian agency systems.

Naval Enterprise Architecture Repository (NEAR)

Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition (ASN RDA)

Silver Bullet developed translators to and from enterprise architecture tools (IBM System Architect, IBM Rational Software Architect, No Magic Magic Draw) and the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) formal ontology, the DoDAF Meta Model (DM2), and its XML Physical Exchange Specification (PES).  These translators enable Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) model reuse in conjunction with data exposure for future architecture and systems engineering analytics, execution, and simulation.  The data exposure enables cross-architecture analysis for interoperability assessment, cybersecurity risk assessment, mission capability gap analysis, and portfolio management.  The PES translators were successfully used to transform Joint Information Environment (JIE) architecture Magic Draw files developed by the JIE Technical Synchronization Organization (JTSO) to PES for the DoD CIO Enterprise Architecture and Engineering Panel (EAEP).

Semantic Distance Function (SDF)


SDF computes semantic distances between pairs of text documents in the form of likelihood ratios of the likelihood that the same concepts would have produced the pair compared to the likelihood of the null hypothesis.  What is unique is, (1) the principled mathematics, (2) the concept of semantic mass and semantic mass ratios, and (3) an innovative way to compute the expected semantic mass ratio for the null hypothesis.  SDF was inspired by long-standing JDL Level 2 fusion track correlation problem.  A key element is a Gram Frequency Data Base (GFDB) implemented in Hbase for quick lookup of gram frequencies by distributed processors computing the semantic distance.  For some experiments the GFDB was initialized using Google's Web 1Terabyte database of one-to-five gram frequencies.  For cyber experiments, a domain-specific GFDB was developed by processing cyber corpii including Exploit DB (40K entries) and the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) database (100K entries).  The GFDB adapts as input documents are processed so the initialization only needs to bootstrap the processing.  Experiments have been run using newstories, the Enron email corpii, SNORT rules, and the Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and Classification (CAPEC) database.

Command and Control Systems Engineering Support

Navy Program Executive Office for Integrated Warfare Systems (PEO IWS) 6.0

Silver Bullet provided systems engineering support for Navy ship and submarine navigation systems including inertial, multi-source, alternative, and decision support.  Silver Bullet developed architecture descriptions and data models, acquisition documents, and specifications.  Silver Bullet conducted mathematical analyses, supports scientific research, and analyzes and synthesizes operational requirements.  Silver Bullet provides liaison between engineering and S&T communities.  Silver Bullet also supported Combat System and C4I systems integration and architecture, particularly for Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD).

DoD Information Enterprise Architecture

Department of Defense (DoD) Chief Information Officer (CIO)

Silver Bullet is DoD’s lead engineer for the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF).  Silver Bullet was key in moving DoD architectures from, 1) unstructured documents to structured data, 2) qualitative to quantitative, and 3) templates to fit-for-purpose models.  This derived from Silver Bullet's role as the U.S. DoD technical lead to an international defense team that developed a formal ontology for coalition data exchange called International Defence Enterprise Architecture Specification (IDEAS). It is formal in that it has a mathematical foundation that implements high order type theory and four-dimensional mereotopology. Silver Bullet used this ontology to develop the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) Meta Model (DM2), in the Cyber Ontology (CybOnt) project, in the operationalization of the DoD Information Enterprise Architecture (DIEA), and in the architectures for the Joint Artificial Intelligence Center (JAIC) Common Foundation.   

Architecture and Systems Engineering

Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command

Architecture/systems engineering services for the development of the Navy/Department of Navy Enterprise Architecture (N/DoN EA).  Silver Bullet developed the data structure for the Naval Architecture Elements Reference Guide (NAERG) using DM2 and supported the analysis and restructuring of the existing architecture elements into the DM2.   Silver Bullet developed an OWL version of the DM2.

Enterprise and Strategic Engineering

Joint Improvised Explosive Device – Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) Counter IED Operations – Intelligence Center (COIC)

Silver Bullet is the EA team lead as part of the Systems Engineering and Technical Assistance (SETA) contractor for the COIC’s Enterprise Engineering Board.  Silver Bullet develops and maintains the JIEDDO-COIC Enterprise Architecture “As Is” and “To Be” baselines for capabilities, operations, systems, services, data, and standards including all COIC system interfaces, standards, and major technology insertion changes. Silver Bullet develops and maintains the EA Roadmap from the “As Is” to the “To Be” state.  This includes supporting mission analysis and identification of gaps to address in “To Be” EA end state, ensuring alignment with DOD and IC EA (e.g., JIE, DI2E and ICITE initiatives), supporting COIC portfolio management (PfM). Silver Bullet also conducts research into advanced analytic techniques (e.g., network analysis, search, predictive analysis) and technologies (e.g., electronics, forensics) and the information technology (e.g., software applications, databases and advanced database management).